|Collection of Practical Teaching Methods for Teachers|
|Source: original Author: Admin Published: November 18, 2015 Views: 1509|
(I) Introduction to specific teaching methods
First, the method of import
The introduction of new courses is the most important part of classroom teaching. Many teachers attach great importance to the reform of the "introduction" of the new curriculum, pay attention to creating problem situations, and strive to make the introduction natural, reasonable, and consistent with the students' cognitive structure and psychological characteristics, so that the teacher's teaching and student learning are in a state of coordination and harmony. The general approach to lead design is as follows:
1. Suspense import method. The teacher carefully designed a situation or problem that closely tied to the heart of the student, which caused the psychological state of the student's desire, made the student want to stop, gave birth to a strong thirst for knowledge, and then naturally led the content.
2. Lyrical introduction method. Before beginning the lecture, in full-fledged and infectious language, through the short form of reading aloud, storytelling, etc., the students first resonated emotionally and transferred this emotion to the content smoothly.
3. Introduce the introduction method. This kind of introduction generally adopts the method of “setting questions”, asking questions, prompting students to think, and seeking answers, which leads to the content of the lecture.
4. Analogy import method. Some new lessons have similarities with the content of their own lessons. They can be transferred analogously, and from here and there, to transfer, thus leading to what is said.
5. Inspirational introduction method. Tell about the successful experiences of people with lofty ideals, ancient and modern, or the touching deeds of heroes, or introduce new lessons in the form of celebrity anecdotes, maxims, epigrams, etc.
6. Target import method. Its characteristics are opening the door, identifying issues, clarifying the teaching goals of this section, and then naturally entering the "compliance" course.
7. Audiovisual import method. Some texts introduce new lessons with videos, videos, pictures, sound recordings, etc., refreshing students' interests and increasing their interest.
8. Example import method. Introducing students from familiar materials in life and practice not only makes students perceive the close connection between book knowledge and the real world, but also stimulates students' interest in learning book knowledge.
9, question-type introduction. The questions asked should be closely related to the teaching goals of this lesson, and they should be able to trigger students' thinking, and avoid simplistic questions like "is it right" or "right or wrong".
Method of Questioning
l. Quotation method. The purpose of this kind of questioning is not to ask students to answer questions, but to arouse students' interest in what they are talking about by asking questions.
2. Induction method. Through an experiment, a demonstration, a thought-provoking story, etc., elucidating a truth or conclusion, arousing the student's thirst for knowledge.
3. Divergence method. That is to ask the same question from different angles, and guide students to divergent thinking.
4. Extension law. Design a series of questions. These questions are arranged according to the principle of easy to difficult, and guide students to step by step and solve doubts.
5. Contact method. That is to inspire students by asking questions, linking what they have learned, linking with the reality of life, linking with practical experience, to deepen their understanding of new knowledge.
6. Decomposition method. That is to use the method of zeroing and decomposing the difficulty to decompose a large problem into several small problems, and give the students “assistance steps” for students to answer.
7, problem-solving method. The title is the eye of the article. It is the "key" to interpret the meaning of the lesson. With the text as a breakthrough, the question is set to guide students to understand the text.
8. Inquiry. According to the result of the matter, inquiry into the cause of the matter and the inquiry will be conducted to develop students' inferential ability.
Three, heuristic methods
There are several ways to inspire:
1. Inspiration. The main point is to "doubt doubt", so that a lesson advances along a "wave-like" thinking line of "doubt doubt one by one doubt". Aggressive heuristics are suitable for focusing students' attention during project introduction and lectures.
2. Inspiration. The teaching content of each new lesson can decompose the knowledge into three parts that are known, semi-known, and unknown to students: known knowledge-one by the teacher to ask questions for students to answer; half-knowledge Inspired to let students ask for conclusions; the unknown knowledge is explained clearly by the teacher. Decomposition heuristics are appropriate when teaching intensive knowledge content.
3. Ask questions to inspire. According to the logical relationship of the textbooks, the teaching content can be organized into interlocking and thought-provoking "question chains", which are presented one by one to allow students to answer, thereby continuously inducing students to think. When students understand this "problem chain", they also unknowingly accept knowledge. Depending on the needs of the teaching, sometimes this series of questions can also be asked and answered by the teacher. The questions are only provided to provide students with thinking clues and indicate the direction of thinking. It is suitable to use enlightenment when teaching logical and deep textbook content.
4. Negative inspiration. For students 'recurring mistakes, teachers can consciously ask students to "jump" in response to the one-sidedness and superficiality of students' cognition, in order to expose the problem, after students "hit the wall" and "fall". Then use the facts to make them realize suddenly, realize that they were wrong, and what was wrong? How to correct it? Correcting the stubborn mistakes often made by students and clarifying the specious problems, this method can get immediate results.
5. Inspiration by analogy. It is based on the existing knowledge, summarizes the similar knowledge, and highlights the connection between two types of things with the same or similar attributes. method. When the nature of abstract and esoteric knowledge is similar to the nature of something superficial, this method can be used to make the problem intuitive and simple.
6. Contrast inspiration. Some knowledge is easy to confuse, and it is easy to find out the essential difference between them by taking a contrasting method, which inspires students to distinguish between similarities and differences.
7, metaphorical inspiration. That is to say, using the same or similar truth, to use abstract or easy-to-understand examples to tell abstract and difficult knowledge. When breaking through the difficulty of teaching, this method can explain its reasoning in a simple way.
8. Demonstration inspiration. That is, through experimental demonstration, students are inspired to acquire relevant knowledge. Demonstration inspiration is used when students' lack of perceptual knowledge hinders their in-depth understanding and detailed analysis of problems.
9, operation inspiration. Instructing students to operate by themselves and practice in person not only inspires students to master certain scientific knowledge, but also cultivates their practical ability.
10. Situational inspiration. Create specific situations for students to learn a certain kind of knowledge, make them immersive, increase their perceptual knowledge, and then trigger thinking.
1l. Graphic inspiration. Using icons to inspire students' thinking, whether it is explaining concepts, rules, laws, or applying problems, can produce good results.
Fourth, the method of language expression
The expressions of instructional language are complex and diverse. The most commonly used are as follows:
1. Explanation method. In the teaching process, explain the meaning, cause, reason, and result of a problem.
Clearly, or to tell the ins and outs of things, this method is usually used. It can be divided into explanatory notes, classification notes, figurative notes, examples and diagrams.
2. Demonstration. This method is usually used when an argument is used to prove the correctness or incorrectness of an assertion.
3. Derivation. This method is usually used when deriving new conclusions through calculus and logical reasoning based on known axioms, definitions, theorems, and laws.
4. Contact method. This method is used when the theory and practice, the knowledge of this discipline and the knowledge of other disciplines, the knowledge that has not been learned, and the knowledge that has been mastered are connected with each other to deepen the understanding of new knowledge.
5. Comparative law. This method is used while associating two or more similar or different things, concepts, etc. to discern their differences.
6. Emphasize the law. In teaching, when an important knowledge or problem needs to remind students of special attention, this method is used.
7. Questioning method. That is, using question patterns or questioning to ask questions to students to attract attention, inspire thinking, and deepen their impressions.
8. Euphemism. In the classroom, some words are not blunt, but are spoken in a roundabout manner.
9, with the help of law. In order to explain a problem, other things, objects, theories, concepts, words, etc. are used to help students understand and master what they have learned.
10. Comprehensive method. In the teaching process, two or more language expressions are often used in combination. This method is called a comprehensive method.
Five, the ending method
l Inductive ending. Guide students to summarize and summarize the content of this section in accurate and concise language to cultivate students' ability to summarize and summarize.
2. Responsive ending. The so-called response refers to echoing the teaching goals proposed at the beginning of teaching.
3. Divergent ending. On the basis of students' understanding of the content, another wave has emerged and diverged, causing students to think broadly. This ending method must pay attention to natural ironing. If used well, it can induce students to create a spark of thinking, but do not make Adding to the snake.
4. Migration end. Provide training materials similar to the teaching content, let students learn from each other, consolidate new knowledge in new training, and promote the transformation of knowledge to ability.
5. Speculative ending. Some texts are full of meanings and can guide students to speculative imagination at the end of the lecture, which helps to cultivate students' imagination.
6, extended ending. Depending on the content of the lectures, appropriate extension of the learning tasks will not only help the learning of this lesson, but also extend the learning inside and outside the classroom.
7. Suspense ending. The deliberate establishment of suspense, so that students eager to learn the following content, can play an exciting and thought-provoking effect.
8. Paving style ending. Guide students to review the knowledge learned in this section carefully after the lesson, so as to pave the way for the following content.
Method of designing practice questions
1. Migration exercises. After talking about the example questions, follow the form of the example questions, and change them a little, and prepare another question for students to practice, in order to develop their ability to learn from others.
2. Induced exercises. Before starting a new class, it is estimated that students will encounter difficulties. Induced exercises can be designed according to the teaching content so that students can get inspiration through the exercises and reduce the difficulty of understanding new knowledge.
3. Divergent exercises. To solve a problem and explore different solutions from different perspectives and different aspects, this exercise is very good for stimulating students' divergent thinking.
4. Contrast exercises. For some seemingly qualitative problems, students will make mistakes when they are negligent in solving the problems. In order to distinguish the similarities and differences and improve the students' ability of analysis and discrimination, teachers can design contrast-type exercises.
5. Group exercises. The knowledge with a certain connection is designed into problem groups to allow students to practice intensively, so that students can discover the connections and laws between knowledge from the exercises, and then strengthen the knowledge they have learned.
6. Error-correcting exercises. Establish error correction assignments, ask students to copy out the wrong questions, mark the points of error, indicate the cause of the error, and write the correct answer.
7. Inquiry-based exercises. Arrange topics of inquiry value to allow students to cultivate students' self-learning ability through investigation of materials outside the classroom, social surveys, asking teachers, and cooperating with classmates.
8. Comprehensive exercises. At the unit or mid-term and final review stage, pay attention to designing some comprehensive topics, covering as many knowledge points as possible, so that they can find loopholes through comprehensive exercises, remedy in time, and consolidate and improve their knowledge through comprehensive training.
Design method of blackboard
The blackboard should pay attention to the beauty of the content, the structure, and the beauty of writing. According to the needs of the teaching goals, teaching content, and teaching art, the design of the blackboard should be original:
l, clues. This blackboard is designed based on the internal development process of the text content, and it can clearly show the author's ideas.
2. Ladder. This type of blackboard is shaped like a staircase. This can vividly represent the levels of teaching content and the progressive or ascending relationship between levels.
3. Total score. This type of blackboard is often an explicit form of teaching content. The teaching content of "total points first and then points", or "first divided then total", or "total-points-total" structure, is suitable for using total points type blackboard writing.
4. Graphical. Scientifically filling the main points of the teaching into the designed form can be concise and clear at a glance.
5. Outline. Write a structural outline of the content, with the outline as the content of the blackboard.
6. Contrast. Differences and differences are identified through comparison, which is conducive to understanding commonality and personality. The main methods of comparison are: concept comparison, positive and negative ratio, cross contrast, vertical contrast, horizontal contrast, etc.
7. Graphical style. That is, in the blackboard writing, it is supplemented by a blackboard writing method that can represent certain scheme lines, such as lines, arrows, and symbols. Its characteristics are image and beauty.
8. Title style. That is, the title (including subtitles) of each part of the content is used as the content of the blackboard.
(2) Introduction to Basic Teaching Methods
I. Teaching Method
l Teaching method. Teachers use oral language to describe situations, narrate facts, explain concepts, demonstrate principles, and clarify laws to students.
2. There are five basic forms of teaching method: ① Telling. It focuses on vividly depicting certain things and phenomena, narrating the occurrence and development of events, so that students form vivid appearances and concepts, and are emotionally infected. ② Explain. It is mainly a systematic and rigorous explanation or demonstration of some complex problems, concepts, theorems and principles. ③ Reading. Explain the teaching materials through reading by teachers and students. ④ Lecture. Teachers make a rational and coherent argument on a topic in the textbook, without inserting or rarely inserting other activities in the middle.
3. The requirements of applying the teaching method: ① The content of the teaching must be scientific, ideological, correct in perspective, accurate in concept, and have a positive ideological education function for students. ② The teaching should be systematic, clear, organized, and focused. Attention should be paid to students' understanding of the cognitive rules of problems, so that students can get a thorough understanding of key issues such as key points, difficult points, and doubts. ③ The language of teaching should be clear, vivid, refined, accurate and vivid. Try to make it easy to understand, easy to understand, moderate speed. ④Teaching should stimulate students' curiosity and encourage students to think positively.
Second, the method of conversation
l. The method of conversation is also called question answering. It is a teaching method in which the teacher guides students to use their existing experience and knowledge to answer new questions so that students can acquire new knowledge, consolidate old knowledge, or check knowledge. This method facilitates the concentration of students 'attention, stimulates students' positive thinking, and cultivates their oral expression skills.
2. There are three specific forms of the conversation method: ① The conversation for imparting new knowledge. Generally, teachers ask a series of coherent and inspiring questions according to the teaching goals, and guide students to make correct answers through positive thinking based on existing experience and knowledge or direct observation of things in front of them, so as to gain new knowledge. ② A conversation to consolidate or examine knowledge. Teachers ask questions based on the textbooks that students have learned, and ask students to answer by recalling old knowledge in order to consolidate and examine the old knowledge. ③ Instructive conversation. Refers to a teacher's instruction and request for a conversation at the beginning of a teaching activity or during a teaching activity.
3. Requirements for teachers by using the conversation method: ① Teachers should prepare a conversation outline according to the requirements of teaching goals. ② Questions should be suitable for students, be instructive and coherent, and the expressions of questions should be clear and easy to understand. ③ Teachers should ask questions from all students, encourage students to speak, and motivate students at different levels. ④ When the conversation is over, timely encouragement and fair evaluation should be carried out.
Third, the demonstration method
1. Demonstration refers to a teaching method in which teachers produce various teaching aids, conduct demonstration experiments, or use modern teaching methods to enable students to acquire knowledge. It plays an important role in improving students' learning interest, developing observational ability and abstract thinking ability, and reducing learning difficulties.
2. The types of presentations can be divided into ① pictures: presentations of pictures, wall charts, maps, and charts; ② demonstrations of real objects, specimens, models; ③ experimental demonstrations: ④ slides, recordings, videos, teaching movies , Computer simulation demonstrations, etc.
3. The requirements of using the demonstration method: ① Serve the needs of teaching, meet the actual needs of students, and have a clear purpose. ② As far as possible, all students should use multiple senses to perceive the demonstration object, and enrich the students' perceptual knowledge. ③ The demonstration should be combined with the teacher's explanations and conversations to guide students' attention to the main characteristics, main aspects or development processes of the objects, so that the things demonstrated and the study of book knowledge are closely integrated.
Fourth, appreciation method
1. Appreciation is a teaching method for teachers to guide students to experience the truth, kindness, and beauty of objective things, to cultivate noble sentiments, and to cultivate moral qualities and aesthetic abilities.
2. Appreciation methods can be divided into three categories according to their nature: ① Appreciation of artistic beauty and natural beauty, such as appreciation of music, fine arts, literary works and nature, will help to cultivate students 'aesthetic ability and enrich students' spiritual life. ② Appreciation of moral behavior. For example, appreciation of celebrities and deeds about celebrities in textbooks such as politics, history, and Chinese language will help cultivate students' moral qualities and develop noble ideals and sentiments. ③ Ideal appreciation, such as appreciation of the pursuit of attitude, rigorous argumentation and innovative spirit in scientific research, will help to cultivate students' strong interest in knowledge, scientific attitude and meticulous thinking habits.
3, the requirements of using the appreciation method: ① arouse students' interest in appreciation. Before instructing students to appreciate, teachers should tell or explain some background knowledge and other methods to connect the students 'past experience and current situation to arouse students' appreciation. ② Stimulate students' strong emotional response. Teachers should be good at using various situations in appreciating teaching, to stimulate students' surprise, admiration, appreciation, admiration, admiration and other emotional reactions, in order to receive good results. ③ Guide students' practical activities. When students have strong emotions about the object of appreciation, the teacher should further guide them to engage in the practice of extended reading, creation, performance, etc., and develop students' aesthetic, moral, and intellectual emotions. ④ Cultivate students' ability of appreciation and discrimination. In appreciation teaching, not only should students be passionate about truth, goodness, and beauty, but also they must learn to discriminate between true and false, good and evil, beautiful and ugly, and develop their ability to identify.
1. The practice method is a teaching method in which students rely on conscious control and correction through the training of intellectual ability to consolidate knowledge and form skills under the guidance of teachers.
2. The practice method can be generally divided into three steps: ① arouse students' interest in practice. The questions should not be partial, difficult, or strange, but should be consistent with the students' actual situation, so that the students will have a successful experience after practice. In addition, it is necessary to train for a limited time to enhance the students 'awareness of efficiency; to increase the students' interest in practice by carrying out game-like exercises and holding homework competitions. ② Give necessary guidance to students' practice, such as teacher demonstration, give students a correct role model, and then students imitate; after imitating, teachers also need to evaluate student performance and correct errors. ③ Instruct students to pay attention to the accuracy and standardization of exercises.
3, the basic requirements of the practice method: ① clear the purpose and requirements of the exercise. Purposefully and step-by-step to improve students 'skills, skills and develop students' abilities. ②Choose practice materials, strengthen double-base training, and strive to promote the accumulation of students' skills, so that students can learn from each other and bypass the class. ③ Exercises should be performed in steps. First of all, it is necessary to put forward the requirements and perform the necessary demonstrations; then the students perform exercises, first to be correct, then to be proficient; finally, the teacher summarizes the review on the basis of the inspection, points out the advantages and disadvantages and the causes, and then demonstrates and proposes the students again Improvement requirements. ④ Exercise weight, frequency and time should be moderate. ⑤ Timely feedback, praise and encourage confidence after each practice; correct mistakes in time and help students analyze the reasons and take corresponding countermeasures.
l Discussion method refers to a teaching method in which students are self-learning and self-speaking under the guidance of teachers, and discussion is the main method. Through discussions, students can brainstorm, inspire each other, deepen understanding, and raise awareness. At the same time, they can also stimulate the enthusiasm for learning, cultivate the spirit of delving into problems and the ability to train language expression.
2. Discussion of the procedure: ① Students learn by themselves. Teachers specify self-study content, put forward self-study requirements, and then students learn on their own. ② Explain on your own. The teacher also divides the students into the same number of groups, specifically designing the presenter, or the lecturer selected by the group to explain, and other members in the group are free to supplement. ③ Discuss each other. Under the inspiration and guidance of the teacher, discuss whether the presenter's results are correct or not, whether there are different solutions, and which are the simplest solutions. ④ Review summary. The teacher pointed out the correct conclusion based on the results of the discussion.
1. The review method refers to teachers instructing students to review the textbooks that they have already learned, in order to strengthen memory, deepen understanding, and integrate, so as to achieve a systematic teaching method. Review occupies an important position in the entire teaching process. It can not only prevent forgetting, but also diagnose and make up for shortcomings in learning, and develop students' memory, thinking, and ability to comprehensively use knowledge to solve practical problems.
2. Review methods are generally divided into three categories: ① Reproducible review. Refers to a review of what we have learned. There are several forms: one is the consolidation review after teaching new content; the second is a short review of the use of knowledge; the third is a transitional review, that is, the new knowledge is organically combined with the original knowledge, so that the new and old knowledge will naturally transition. ② Comparative review. Compare what you have learned. Find out the differences and connections between them. ③ systematic review. Systematize and synthesize the knowledge learned at one stage to make the knowledge learned systematize.
3. The general form of the review method: ① oral review-teacher-oriented or student-led by the teacher, or teacher-student review together; ② written review-fill in the form review under the teacher's arrangement; students answer questions raised by teachers , Do review questions.
4. When organizing the review, we should grasp three links and handle the three relationships. The three links are: ① sorting and sorting to deepen memory; ② communicating knowledge and developing ideas; ③ appropriate synthesis and flexible use. The three relationships are: ① the good-to-poor relationship between students: ② the relationship between leak detection and systematic review; ③ the relationship between speaking and practicing.
5. The following questions should be paid attention to when using the review method: ① The review of basic knowledge and basic skills should be emphasized in the review, attention should be paid to highlighting the key points, and the combination of training and practice should be emphasized; ② Teachers should broadly and concisely reveal the internal relationship of knowledge and the basic rules : ③ The review methods should be diversified; ④ The review should be timely, so that the students' learning situation can be feedbacked in time, and the review methods are continuously improved to improve the review quality.
l The experimental method is a teaching method in which students use certain equipment and materials under the guidance of the teacher to control the operating process of the conditions to cause certain changes in the experimental subject. Obtain new knowledge or verify knowledge by observing the changes in these phenomena. . Experiment is an important method in teaching science and other subjects.
2. There are three types of experimental methods: ① guide students to recognize new knowledge that they have not yet known; ② verify the theory to consolidate knowledge and deepen their understanding; ③ generalize similar images or solve practical problems according to established theories.
3, the requirements of teachers using the experimental method: ① to prepare an experimental plan. The content should include the title, purpose, requirements and required instruments, materials, tools, etc. of the experiment. ② To organize well, the teaching experiments in China are mostly group experiments. Divide the group and designate the students in the group. ③ Make all kinds of material preparations before the experiment, and check the instruments, equipment, and materials necessary for the experiment to ensure the smooth progress of the experiment teaching. ④ At the beginning of the experiment, explain to the students the objectives and requirements of the experiment, as well as the structure, name, and proper use of the equipment. ⑤ When the experiment is in progress, the teacher should inspect the experimental operation of the students, guide the correction of errors in the experimental activities, and help the students who encounter difficulties in the experiment. ⑥ After the experiment, to summarize, the teacher can designate students to report their experimental progress and experimental results, and make comments, point out the advantages and disadvantages, and clarify the improvement direction.