Educational scientific research methods refer to the sum of the methods, means, and tools used in educational scientific research to achieve research purposes. Educational scientific research methods are "bridges" and "boats" for accomplishing educational scientific research tasks. Once the direction and goals are set, the method plays a decisive role.
There are many types of educational scientific research methods, such as observation method, survey method, document method, experience summary method, action research method, experimental method, case study method, comparison method, history method, forecast method, measurement method, statistical method and content analysis. Law, etc. The first six research methods are often used, and the brief introduction is as follows.
Observation is a research method commonly used in educational scientific research.
The concept and role of observation
Observation is a method for researchers to systematically observe research objects in education and teaching activities according to a certain purpose and plan, so as to understand certain characteristics and rules.
Observation is an important means to understand the phenomenon of education objectively and comprehensively, to understand the objects of education in depth, and to identify problems; it is the premise of formulating correct measures and methods to improve the quality of education; further understanding the internal relationship between education phenomena and grasping its essential attributes An important way to explore new educational laws.
(II) Implementation of the observation method
1. Formulate the plan: clear observation goals and tasks, learn relevant knowledge and theory, determine the total population and samples of observation objects, choose good observation methods, and formulate observation plans and expected results.
2. Implementation of observation: Specific observation objects and scope are selected, the central content of observation is clearly defined, observations are carried out step by step according to plan, good at identifying main and unrelated factors, paying attention to the activities of the observation objects and their reactions, and repeating observations To improve observation reliability. Make observation records.
3. Improve the data: arrange the observation data, charts, transcripts, recordings, videos, photos and other data in time. Perform statistical processing on relevant data in time to continuously improve the reliability of the data.
(3) Analyze data and write research reports. It is necessary to analyze and process the data obtained by observation in time. Find out the cause and effect relationship of the event, and draw the observation research conclusion. Write observation research reports and make meaningful suggestions on education practice.
Survey method is also a commonly used and effective method for educational scientific research.
(A) the concept and role of the investigation method
The investigation method is to indirectly collect the current status and historical materials related to the research object according to a certain purpose and plan, so as to clarify the facts, analyze, generalize, find problems, and explore the research method of education law.
The investigation has the following three functions: ① master first-hand materials and data of the subject research, and strengthen the pertinence of the subject research. As objects and phenomena of educational research are complex, various factors are constantly changing. Therefore, in order to study and solve some problems, we must master the first-hand materials and data of the topic research and strengthen the pertinence of the topic research. ② Provide factual basis for subject research. Project research and education research should strive to do a good job of three services: serving administrative decision-making, service work, and education reform practice. All of these services are based on facts. ③ Understand the status quo and dare to innovate. The more the society moves forward, the more aspects we have to study. Therefore, we must understand and grasp the reality. We must be good at developing new problems, solving new problems, putting forward new insights, forming new theories, and advancing the development of education science and education.
(II) Implementation and method of investigation
The investigation should have a clear purpose and a specific investigation plan should be formulated. The overall selection of the survey respondents should be appropriate, and scientific sampling methods should be used for sampling. It is necessary to use a variety of means to collect information, which is typical, objective, and authentic. The survey data should be systematically organized, and as far as possible, the methods of mathematical statistics and graphical methods should be used for analysis.
The following three survey methods are generally used:
The questionnaire method is a survey method in which the surveyor compiles the content of the survey into a question or a form, the survey subject fills in the answer, and then collects it for sorting, statistics and research.
The important thing is to design the questionnaire well. First write the questionnaire introduction, which briefly states the purpose, meaning and requirements of the questionnaire. The main content is to do a good job in designing the problem, and the topic should be scientific, reasonable and pertinent. It can clearly reflect the intention of the investigator; it can also enable the respondent to answer truthfully and accurately. There are multiple-choice questions, yes / no questions, blank questions, and answer questions. The composition and order of the questions must be arranged in a certain way. It is also necessary to pay attention to the results of the questionnaire to facilitate the statistics, and fully consider the use of modern means for statistics.
The interview method is a method for investigators to understand the situation and collect the required information for a specific research purpose by talking face-to-face with the survey respondents.
The content of the interview can be roughly divided into three categories: First, the fact-finding, which aims to require the respondent to provide general information that he does know. The second is the solicitation of opinions, that is, soliciting the interviewees' opinions, opinions and suggestions on an educational issue. The third is to understand the respondent's inner world and psychological motivation, including personal cognition, experience, experience, interest, hobbies, ambitions, beliefs, ideological characteristics, personality characteristics, psychological qualities and even family conditions, social relationships, and so on.
To do a good interview design: determine the research questions, determine the sample and method of the interview, and develop an interview outline.
The interviewees can use individual interviews or interview a group of people with the same views and experiences. The conversation structure can be closed, that is, there is a clear answer; it can also be open, that is, there is no clear answer at all; or semi-open. The way of talking can be the method of reply interview or the method of narrative interview.
Interviews by researchers will make the investigation friendly, in-depth, comprehensive and accurate. The obstacle is that respondents often have "vigilance". In order to conduct a good interview, there are a few things to note:
First, when choosing an interviewee, consider whether the other party can provide valuable facts and whether they are willing to answer the questions raised. Therefore, the visitor should know the interviewee's experience, status and personality in advance.
Second, the time and place of the visit should be based on the premise that it will not affect the respondent's work or study. It is best to use spare time or vacation time.
Third, it is the key that a visitor gains the trust and cooperation of the respondent. For this reason, the interviewer needs the consent of the interviewee before the interview; explain the purpose of the interview before the interview, so that the other party feels important; the interviewer's attitude should be sincere and polite.
Fourth, we must be good at understanding the psychological changes of the interviewees. Be resourceful and adept at contingency.
Fifth, we must master the questioning techniques. There are usually three ways to ask a question: First, the direct method, which is to open the door, and directly ask a question for the other party to answer. The second is the indirect method, which asks A, but actually wants to know B. The third is the roundabout method, that is, understanding a substantial issue from different aspects. When the conversation is off topic, be good at cleverly directing the topic to the original goal.
The interview should be recorded in a way (transcript, audio, video, photo, etc.). The interview records should be arranged and analyzed in a timely manner. The first is to conduct fact classification analysis to find out the cause and effect relationship. The second is to generate new theories and theories from factual data. Draw conclusions.
3. Work analysis method
The work analysis method is a method of analyzing and researching various works of the surveyed objects (clear population and samples), such as notes, assignments, diaries, and articles, to understand the situation, find problems, and grasp the characteristics and rules.
The work analysis method must have a clear purpose and plan, and the scope and focus of the work to be analyzed must be determined. The work analysis method is mostly used in case study or group psychological quality and personality characteristics.
(3) Regardless of the survey method adopted, the survey and research report should be written after the survey is implemented. The contents of the general investigation and research report include: investigation background, investigation purpose, investigation object, time and method of investigation, main data statistics and analysis (conclusion), countermeasures and suggestions, main references, etc.
three. Literature method
Dedication method is a method for a researcher to comprehensively and correctly understand and grasp the problem under study according to a certain research purpose or topic, and to reveal its laws and attributes. The entire book of school education and scientific research writes: "In the special field of education, the documentary method has more special significance. All ancient and modern Chinese and foreign, all contributing educators are based on extensively absorbing the achievements of their predecessors, that is, using the documentary method It is obtained by absorbing, using, and innovating the achievements of previous generations. For thousands of years, a wealth of educational literature has accumulated countless educational facts, data, theories, methods, and scientific assumptions and fantasies, and has become a precious human spirit. Wealth. As a primary and secondary school educator, learning and applying the literature method can better carry out effective educational research work, discover the spiritual treasures of human beings, reveal the development law of education, and develop our education cause today. "
The bibliographic method can be operated in the following four steps. The first is literature retrieval. That is, first of all, we must make full use of newspapers and periodicals, abstracts, yearbooks, and encyclopedias to retrieve and list a list of documents that have a certain reference value. The second is literature collection. Collecting documents is an important and arduous task. Through browsing, intensive reading and indexing of documents (which can take full advantage of modern methods for indexing), forming the outline, excerpts and abstracts of documents can better form document card materials. The third is literature identification. Attention should be paid to the source and value of the literature, to disguise the truth, and to prevent the spread of false evidence. The fourth is the research and application of literature. You can use historical methods, causal methods, comparative methods, dialectics and other methods to carry out qualitative analysis and quantitative statistics on the literature, think repeatedly, draw regular understanding, and write research reports.
four. Lessons Learned
Summary of scientific experience is a commonly used scientific research method in the field of education.
(A) the concept and role of the education experience summary method
The education experience summarization method is based on the facts provided by educational practice, and according to scientific research procedures, analyzes and summarizes educational phenomena, reveals its internal connections and laws, and makes it an educational research method of educational theory.
In the history of education both at home and abroad, there are many books on the summary of educational experience, which have had a profound impact on the development of education. All educators who have made great achievements must sum up the experience of themselves and others (predecessors), explore the objective laws of education, and promote the progress of human culture and education. The summary of educational experience is a reliable guarantee for improving the quality of education and teaching, and an important way to enrich and develop scientific theories of education. Advanced educational experience contains a correct understanding of the laws of objective education and reflects the pursuit of truth, pioneering and innovation.
Lessons Learned Methods and Steps
The educational experience itself is universal, practical, and diverse, and its content is rich and colorful. The general method steps are as follows.
1. Starting from reality, carefully select topics and determine the research object (overall).
2. Around the center content, extensively collect and grasp relevant reference materials.
3. Planning and implementation. Formulate work plans, make arrangements for manpower and time, collect specific experience and facts, and analyze, synthesize, summarize, and verify.
4. Summarize experience. By analyzing, synthesizing, abstracting, and summarizing, the experience is organized and systematic, and important, distinctive, and innovative content is highlighted. The title sentence is refined and raised to the height of educational theory.
5. Summarize the research results and write a dissertation or research report.
(3) Promotion of advanced experience
Advanced experience can be sponsored or promoted by educational administrative leadership, academic departments, and schools. Can use written, audio and video for communication; also can hold on-site meetings, education and teaching exhibitions, symposiums, seminars and other activities such as communication, help, and belt for communication and promotion. The communication and promotion process is an effective way to summarize experience and accept practical tests to obtain feedback information. Only after repeated and repeated practice and improvement can the advanced experience be further improved and greater social benefits achieved.
Fives. Action research
The action research method is the most popular among educators and uses the most common scientific research methods. It is an educational scientific research method that our educators should focus on.
(A) the concept and characteristics of action research
Briefly introduce how the action research method came. The action research method was born in the middle of the twentieth century. At that time, general scientific researchers believed that "action" and "research" were concepts of different people engaging in activities of different natures. And the famous American social psychologist Kurt Lewin and the social worker John Cowle found in their respective work: social science researchers only do research based on their personal interests or only for "publishing books"; the actual work If you do not study the environment you are in and the actual problems you face, and you do not get the help of the researchers, you cannot make "organized and effective actions" with your personal enthusiasm to work. In this regard, Lewin said: "There is no research without action, and no action without research." Therefore, he elaborated the close relationship between action and research, and proposed a new idea and method of social science research, that is, he emphasized that the research topic should come from the needs of actual workers, and that research must be carried out in actual work. This is done with the participation of actual workers and researchers. At the same time, it is emphasized that the results of research should be understood and mastered by practical workers and implemented. The ultimate purpose of research is to solve practical problems to improve social behavior. He went on to point out that this is "a method of combining the wisdom and abilities of scientific researchers with practical workers to solve a certain fact." As a result, a name was formally established for "Action Research." In the 1950s, "Action Research" was introduced to the education community, and subsequently widely used in educational administrative research, education, teaching, and classroom educational scientific research.
It can be seen that action research refers to a scientific research method that aims at solving practical problems by combining education practitioners and education researchers in a planned and step-by-step way to solve problems arising in educational practice.
The action research method is popular with educators and has become the most commonly used method because it has five characteristics (advantages).
① The main purpose of action research is to address practical problems, improve practical work, and improve the quality of action. It solves the disconnection between "work" and "research", "practice" and "theory", "scientific researchers" and "practical workers", and realizes the unification of experimental research and practical work.
② Action research makes cadres and teachers truly become the main body of education and scientific research. The people engaged in action research and the use of research results are the ones who actually work. Leading cadres and teachers know the issues that need to be studied urgently in education. They are also the ones who are the easiest to solve problems and the ones who are most likely to achieve results.
③ The environment for action research is the environment under natural conditions, and it is the real dynamic working environment. Such job changes are real job improvements and reforms.
④ The method selected for action research is a combination of various methods that are conducive to solving problems, that is, it can comprehensively and flexibly use other methods, such as "observation method", "investigation method", "work analysis method", and "case analysis" Law "and so on. This is conducive to the reform of educational methods and to educational innovation.
⑤ The value evaluation of action research focuses on the actual effect of the research and highlights the practical effect of educational research. This is conducive to the implementation of quality education.
In short, the action research method unifies educational practice and educational research work. It is an educational scientific research method that we must master.
(II) Implementation of Action Research Law
The process of action research can be summarized into the following five steps.
1. Determine the problem. Proceeding from the actual work of the school, this paper puts forward the preliminary ideas of urgent problems and changes in education and management. Collect relevant data and clarify the research purpose and significance.
2. Make a plan. First of all, a systematic overall plan should be formulated, including the research target content, approaches, management evaluation, etc., and a specific action plan, and the sequence of activities should be arranged.
3. Action implementation. It is necessary to organize the study and training of the personnel involved in the research. It is necessary to take actions and organize activities according to the planned measures. Attention should be paid to the collection and collation of activity data, focusing on actual results and problem solving.
4. Analysis and evaluation. The data and information obtained by the research institute shall be systematically and scientifically processed, and the research results shall be analyzed and evaluated in a timely manner.
5. Submit a report. The content of the report should include the research background, theoretical basis, target content, practical operation, effect conclusions, reflections and suggestions.
six. Experimental Method
Everyone knows "medical experiments", "chemical experiments" and "physical experiments", etc. The experiments in the field of education are called educational experiments. The so-called educational experiment refers to education researchers selecting research objects according to research purposes, actively manipulating experimental conditions, artificially creating or changing educational conditions, controlling the effects of other factors, observing and measuring the changes of experimental objects, and revealing the cause and effect between educational phenomena A scientific research method of relationships.
In order to carry out educational experiments, an experimental design plan should be prepared before the experiment, including: selecting the research background, theoretical basis, experimental hypothesis (target content), experimental organization, manipulation of experimental factors (operation of independent variables, detection of dependent variables , Control of unrelated variables, etc.), implementation methods and steps, expected results and recommendations. The test should be carried out as planned, pay attention to the collection and arrangement of experimental data, and perform mathematical statistics on the experimental data and draw conclusions. After the test is implemented, a comprehensive summary should be made, a test research report should be written, the language should be refined, the characteristics and innovative contents should be highlighted, and the level of the experimental research report should be improved.